Abstract: Kidney disease is commonly encountered in outpatient medical practice, and is often asymptomatic until significant renal damage has occurred. Elevated blood pressure, abnormalities on urinalysis, and increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels are all manifestations of kidney disease that may be diagnosed on routine clinical and laboratory examination. Electrolyte disturbances, particularly hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hyperkalemia may also be encountered in the outpatient setting. The obstetrician-gynecologist can play a major role in the early detection of kidney disease, which is critical in the implementation of strategies that can prevent progressive deterioration in kidney function. This is especially important because the incidence of kidney failure has increased dramatically in the past decade as a result of increases in obesity, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and the aging of the population. This monograph reviews the important causes of kidney disease, as well as principles of screening, prevention, and management.