Abstract: Every age group experiences back pain, a common reason for activity limitation. Management of back pain in a woman is challenging because of physiologic and hormonal changes through the woman's life cycle. The treatment is dictated by etiology and a woman's stage of life or reproductive events, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause. Most episodes of low back pain are temporary with minimal long-term sequelae, but recurrent and long-lasting episodes require more thorough clinical evaluation. This monograph describes the anatomy of the spine; illustrates a focused, thorough evaluation, including obtaining a medical history and performing a physical examination; discusses warning signs and symptoms of more serious etiologies; provides recommendations for further testing or referral; and offers case vignettes of common causes of low back pain as a woman progresses from young adulthood to advanced age.